He turns color into a precision tool to untangle the ‘dance of molecules’

first_imgLeave this field empty if you’re human: Why is color such an important part of what you do?So our dyes, our colored molecules, are not just colored, they also are fluorescent. That means they don’t just absorb light, they absorb one color of light and they emit another color of light. And that phenomenon is incredibly useful for studying biological systems. You can shine one color of light on a biological specimen that has a fluorescent molecule in it and you can see that molecule in a sea of billions of other molecules that are not fluorescent, down to this single molecule level. Nucleus of a cell stained with Janelia Fluor dyes JF549 and JF646.Brian English In the LabHe turns color into a precision tool to untangle the ‘dance of molecules’ Fruit fly larvae expressing protein tag in neurons stained with Janelia Fluor dye, JF635.Bill Lemon and Philipp Keller1/4PreviousNextWhat can we color inside the body?Modern genetics allows us to color different cells in the brain, so we can color neurons and not color other cells like astrocytes, glia, etc. We can color specific sub-cellular structures, like the nucleus where the DNA is housed, and not other portions of the cell. We can even go deeper and color specific molecules that control gene expression or molecules that are part of a particular organelle or particular sub-cellular structure, and then just look at how those molecules move.It seems like you’re trying to develop a more painterly palette for the sciences. Why?We’re trying to expand the palette because everything has to work together: the microscopes, the molecular biology to express the tags and other proteins inside the cell, and the data analysis. The ability to tune these dyes allows us to better match different limitations in the optics and the lasers, and the molecular biology.And so the goal of my lab is to figure out: Can we squeeze in a different color? Can we extend it farther to the red to give another channel? Fine-tuning these molecules gives us options, so we can work with microscopes and biologists to try and get as much information out of a single experiment as possible.What does it feel like when one of your dyes has hit its mark?The first time we ever made a Janelia Fluor dye, I remember looking over and thinking: “Wow, that looks like a really bright.”When we sent it up to some collaborators at Harvard, I got an email back saying “my postdoc just texted me and they said these dyes are so bright, [they’re] crying at the microscope.” And at that point, we realized that we might actually have something here. Jeffery DelViscio/STAT What’s the most enjoyable part of this kind of work?One of the great things about Janelia is that we actually get to give away a lot of our technology. That’s one of the mantras here. That allows us to send out thousands of vials of dye around the world every year. The ability to send these things out is enabling science and a lot of people are very grateful, very surprised. I’ll get an e-mail and sometimes the stuff will be in their lab the next day. (Author’s note: Luke’s email, incidentally, is [email protected])And the most rewarding part of this is when it’s a postdoc who’s desperate and I send them some stuff and I get an email back a week later saying, ‘thank you, you’ve you’ve rescued my project.’What are your future hopes for the dyes you’re creating?Right now our molecules that we’ve made are really focused on basic research and understanding how molecules behave inside a cell, but these improved imaging technologies could also be used for other things. For example, most drug discovery high-throughput screens are done with fairly low resolution, very slow imaging technologies. And so if we could adapt these very bright dyes and these improved microscopes to drug discovery, you might be able to find new drugs that are modulating really fast interactions inside a cell that can be the cause of certain cancers.Another thing is just understanding how the brain works. We’re actually moving toward using our dyes in conjunction with protein engineering to fashion new sensors that sense brain activity voltage changes. Basic research in the brain could ultimately lead to research on different dysfunctions in the brain, like neurodegenerative diseases.Luke Lavis Jeffery DelViscio/STATWhat’s the thing that you’d really like to do that you can’t do right now?We’re making all these wonderful colors and in many cases we don’t have enough ways to attach these molecules to proteins inside a cell. We have maybe three or four different methods to attach these dyes and we now have many more colors. So one thing that we can’t do is utilize this [full] palette of dyes that we’ve created.What did you see in color chemistry that gave you enough conviction to continue on with it?I think one thing that I’ve learned from biologists is that they’re always pushing the envelope, always right at the edges of what’s possible using the tools that are available. To a chemist, if you make a dye that’s five or ten-fold brighter, that’s kind of incremental, but to a biologist all they say is, ‘now I can do so many more experiments.’How would you categorize the things that you’ve been able to see with the system color tagging that you’ve helped create?Looking at images, using our dyes, it’s amazing the choreography that occurs inside a cell. You think it’s just this jumble of molecules and in many ways it is. But then you see these definite tracks. This thing is hanging out over here and then suddenly it moves. It stops at a particular place in a cell — there are there are barriers to diffusion. There are different things going on and we don’t understand how they work or what they’re really doing.As a chemist you realize that a cell, in all this wonderful complexity, is just a collection of molecules, and we need to understand how those molecules move and interact because that’s basically the the spark of life — it’s how living systems work. Jeffery DelViscio/STAT Stable binding sites of SOX2, a protein that is involved in the transcription of genetic information, determined with Janelia Fluor dye, JF549.James Liu If you look at color in marketing and it uses a bright palette, it’s meant to grab your attention. How is that same palette useful to science and how does it help us see in a different way?One of the great things about color is that it allows you to differentiate between different things, right? We color-code files. We sort our Legos by color. The question is: Can we do the same thing inside a cell?advertisement Newsletters Sign up for Daily Recap A roundup of STAT’s top stories of the day. Please enter a valid email address. Cells in the process of cell division, stained with Janelia Fluor dye JF646. Wes Legant and Eric Betzig ASHBURN, Va. — Luke Lavis paints the insides of cells, but he’s not an artist, he’s a color chemist.As head of molecular tools and imaging at Janelia Research Campus, Lavis is responsible for helping to bring varicolored detail to the hectic, colorless tangle of biological systems.During a recent interview in his lab, he talked about how the colored dyes his team creates could be useful for drug discovery, why he loves giving them away for free, and how color can reveal life’s spark. This interview has been edited for clarity.advertisement Fruit fly larvae expressing protein tag in neurons stained with Janelia Fluor dye, JF635.Bill Lemon and Philipp Keller Privacy Policy Chad Binns Tags research A typical human cell really doesn’t have inherent color. And so we have to engineer different ways to add color to structures inside a cell.The beauty of modern molecular genetics is that we can fuse a fluorescent protein, or a tag, that will grab a fluorescent dye, onto a particular structure within a cell or a specific protein inside the cell. And because of that we can then color in that particular structure or that protein and then watch these individual molecules as they move around.The cell is made up of a bunch of different molecules and so the ability to image and track the behavior of different molecules in the same cell and watch how they interact really allows us to untangle the complicated dance of molecules in a biological cell. It’s sort of like putting numbers on a ballroom dance contestant. We’re trying to basically tag each one of the partners and watch how they move around — we are giving them really colorful ballroom dresses. Stable binding sites of SOX2, a protein that is involved in the transcription of genetic information, determined with Janelia Fluor dye, JF549.James Liu By Jeffery DelViscio July 30, 2018 Reprintslast_img read more

Your Corner Wrench: When your new vehicle doesn’t fit

first_img advertisement Buy It! Princess Diana’s humble little 1981 Ford Escort is up for auction An engagement gift from Prince Charles, the car is being sold by a Princess Di “superfan” PlayThe Rolls-Royce Boat Tail may be the most expensive new car everPlay3 common new car problems (and how to prevent them) | Maintenance Advice | Driving.caPlayFinal 5 Minivan Contenders | Driving.caPlay2021 Volvo XC90 Recharge | Ministry of Interior Affairs | Driving.caPlayThe 2022 Ford F-150 Lightning is a new take on Canada’s fave truck | Driving.caPlayBuying a used Toyota Tundra? Check these 5 things first | Used Truck Advice | Driving.caPlayCanada’s most efficient trucks in 2021 | Driving.caPlay3 ways to make night driving safer and more comfortable | Advice | Driving.caPlayDriving into the Future: Sustainability and Innovation in tomorrow’s cars | Driving.ca virtual panelPlayThese spy shots get us an early glimpse of some future models | Driving.ca See More Videos For a cheap and easy device to keep you from hitting the front wall of your garage with your vehicle’s front bumper, there’s nothing like the tennis ball hanging from the ceiling on a string. But if you prefer more high-tech options, several companies offer electronic systems that mount on the wall and provide a green, yellow, red warning light sequence when you get too close. ‹ Previous Next › RELATED Trending in Canada The Rolls-Royce Boat Tail may be the most expensive new car ever Created with Raphaël 2.1.2Created with Raphaël 2.1.2 A car that won’t fit in the garage presents more than a few headaches. RELATED TAGSSafety and MaintenanceMaintenanceNew Vehicles Your Corner Wrench: Are you driving your car nuts? This scenario happens more often that we’d imagine and it plays out every day at one auto retailer or another. A customer excitedly takes delivery of their new (or new to them) ride, proudly and carefully drives it home only to have their new-car elation deflated when they find out it doesn’t fit in their garage or driveway parking spot. Whether it’s too long for their garage bay or too tall or wide, it can create some huge headaches.You might think this to be a no-brainer but the easiest way to avoid all these headaches in the first place is to complete a thorough test drive of the vehicle you’re considering that includes a home driveway and/or garage fit test. If it’s anything with a lift-gate, try fully opening it while it’s in the garage to make sure it doesn’t hit the ceiling or open garage door. You might even try opening the gate while it’s in the garage and the door is closed.But if you already signed on the bottom line and have driven your dream machine off the retailer’s lot, there are a few tricks to help fit it in a tight garage. And consider that some consumers would rather live with their off-sized choice than purchase something else. We encourage all readers to share their views on our articles using Facebook commenting Visit our FAQ page for more information. Trending Videos Roadside Breakdowns: Here’s when to pull a MacGyverOne of the biggest drawbacks to most home garages is the amount of space taken up by the stairs and landings for interior access doors. Almost every province and territory have building codes that specify the size and placement of these features but after taking occupancy, homeowners may be able to make modifications to reduce the amount of space that these stairs/landings take up from the garage floor. If your home is a rental, make sure you can undo any mods you make and return things to preexisting condition before ending your lease.Pool noodles can save a lot of dents and scratches. While many home and car owners are aware of the value of securing foam pool noodles to garage walls to eliminate door dings, they can also be easily fixed to the interior of a garage door, its tracks or the ceiling to prevent lift-gate damage if the door isn’t high enough to provide proper clearance. While no carmaker allows for lift-gate open-height adjustments, there is a simple hack to limit how far these gates can open: A small cord with two rounded “S” hooks can be used to stop the gate from opening too far by clipping one end to the lift-gate’s interior pull handle and the other to the striker pin or loop where the latch engages. A few strips of self-adhesive Velcro mounted to the inside of the gate are all it takes to keep this cord handy and ready to go. But beware, this trick won’t work with most vehicles equipped with motorized lift-gates as their systems will interpret the cord’s limiting feature as an obstruction and will re-close the gate automatically. COMMENTSSHARE YOUR THOUGHTSlast_img read more

5 ways to get through stress

first_img Published: June 7, 2019 Relationships, jobs, school, finances—stress can creep up on you from all areas of your life. While stress is often associated with negative events, positive events can sometimes be stressful, too. No matter where your stress is coming from, here are some tips to help you get through it.  Recognize that stress is a valuable part of life.Stress in inevitable. While it’s often seen as a negative aspect of life, stress can actually provide an opportunity for growth. In fact, every time you deal with stress, your brain becomes more prepared for the next stressful experience. This is known as stress inoculation. Overcoming small stressors in life can prepare you to tackle larger sources of stress more successfully.Campus resourcesCounseling and Psychiatric Services (CAPS) has resources available over the summer:SilverCloud Online: Join a free online program to access programs specifically made to address stress, anxiety and depression. Each module provides information, tips and interactive activities to help you better understand and improve your well-being.Anxiety Toolbox Workshop: Learn how to integrate skills into your life to help reduce anxiety.Feel Better Fast Workshop: Learn coping techniques to help ease distressing thoughts and emotions.Need additional support? CAPS offers walk-in hours throughout the summer.Use active coping techniques.Don’t wait for situations to fix themselves. Draw on your previous experiences to help you cope. Think about other stressful times in your life—what helped and what didn’t? Think of tactics that you’ve used in the past that can help you get through the stress you’re feeling now. Identify your strengths, and use them.Be compassionate with yourself.Self-compassion is linked to emotional resiliency. Consider how you would speak to a friend that is stressed, and practice using that same language when you speak to yourself.Practice psychological flexibility.Psychological flexibility describes the emotional ability to bend when you feel you are at your breaking point. Remind yourself of the values that fuel your long-term goals. Connect those values to the discomfort you are feeling now.For instance, if you don’t feel like doing your homework, try to remind yourself why it’s important (getting good grades or feeling accomplished). While it’s important to find a balance between work and self-care, it can be helpful to remind yourself that what you’re going through is worth the time and effort you put in as you move toward your objectives.Find a way to take a mental break.Down time is restorative and essential to navigating stress in the long run. Schedule time to rest and engage in activities you enjoy, such as hanging out with friends, getting active or watching your favorite show.It’s also important to keep stress in perspective. If you feel guilty about taking a break, ask yourself these grounding questions about your situation: How will I feel about this in seven hours, seven days, seven weeks, seven months or seven years?While the immediate stress you feel may be overwhelming, it will likely lessen over time. The further you think into the future, the more at ease you may begin to feel and the less guilty you may feel about taking a break.Categories:Mind & BodyCampus Community Share Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-maillast_img read more

Govt will continue to help Entrepreneurs get off the Ground

first_imgRelatedGovt will continue to help Entrepreneurs get off the Ground Govt will continue to help Entrepreneurs get off the Ground CommerceMarch 19, 2012 RelatedGovt will continue to help Entrepreneurs get off the Ground FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail State Minister for Industry, Investment and Commerce, Hon. Sharon Ffolkes-Abrahams, says the Government will continue to provide the necessary support to assist entrepreneurs to get off the ground and to successfully commercialise their business ideas, using the widest range of models available. “We see the fostering of start-ups and early-stage ventures as an important pillar in the country’s business strategy,” Mrs. Ffolkes-Abrahams said. The State Minister was speaking at the opening of Access Financial Services Limited’s newest branch, at Duke Street, downtown Kingston, on March  16. She noted that the  country’s  micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME) sector, benefitted from some $2.45 billion in loan disbursements last year.  The  loans were provided through  wholesale lenders, the Development Bank of Jamaica (DBJ); Micro Investment Development Agency(MIDA); the National Insurance Fund (NIF); and Pan Caribbean Financial Services Limited. Mrs. Ffolkes-Abrahams said some 10,355 stakeholders benefitted from the disbursements, with their business ventures yielding approximately 8,691 jobs. In this regard, she assured that financing the sector is a “major priority area of the Government.” The State Minister  pointed out, however, that disbursements demonstrated a certain “reticence to borrow,” as well as the inability of MSME clients to meet borrowing requirements, such as a good credit rating, and the provision of collateral. “It is for reasons, such as these, that we welcome the introduction of Credit Bureaus; and we are now making significant strides towards establishing a secured transactions framework,” she indicated. Noting that at least one credit bureau licence has already been granted, Mrs. Ffolkes-Abrahams said that with the full introduction of this facility, “greater efficiency will be introduced into the MSME loan market, thereby increasing access to finance and reducing lending rates to borrowers with a good credit history.” Regarding secured transaction, the State Minister advised that borrowers will be able to “pledge” moveable property in a manner that fully establishes and preserves property rights. Access Financial Services Limited is Jamaica’s leading provider of small business, micro business, and personal loans. Its newest branch is the 14th such outlet opened since the entity commenced operations in 2000. By Douglas McIntosh, JIS Reporter RelatedGovt will continue to help Entrepreneurs get off the Ground Advertisementslast_img read more

Airtel readies 5G radio network with Ericsson deal

first_img Related Yanitsa joins Mobile World Live as a Reporter based in London. She has more than 5 years’ experience at various media outlets in her home country Bulgaria. She started her career as a political reporter, followed by taking editor roles… Read more AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to MoreAddThisMore2 07 OCT 2020 Former Ericsson employees charged in bribery case Author Previous ArticleUS to rule on TikTok ban after presidential electionNext ArticleBlog: Could Apple’s App Store row hurt its 5G entry? Home Airtel readies 5G radio network with Ericsson deal 5GAirtelEricssoncenter_img Asia Telkomsel turns on 5G in major cities Bharti Airtel strengthened an agreement with Ericsson to deploy 5G-ready radio and transport products, boosting the Indian operator’s network capacity as it continues to prepare for the launch of next-generation services.In a statement, Ericsson said the extended multi-year contract built upon the pair’s 25-year partnership and would allow Airtel to enhance its network capacities, including backhaul, to deliver a superior experience to its customers.Airtel CTO Randeep Sekhon highlighted the move’s importance for building a network “ready for 5G and beyond”, noting the company was “obsessed with delivering the best network experience to our customers, especially in these unprecedented times when digital connectivity is more important than ever”.5G delaysIndia is expected to allocate 5G spectrum in 2021, after the process was delayed this year due to poor economic conditions of the industry, while operator pilot schemes to trial the technology have also been held back as a consequence of Covid-19 (coronavirus) lockdown measures.India’s push into 5G has also been complicated by rising tensions between the country and China, which has led to severe question marks over the involvement of Chinese vendors in the country. Nunzio Mirtillo, SVP for South East Asia Oceania and India at Ericsson, added the products manufactured in India will enable Airtel’s network to “cater to the country’s fast-growing data traffic needs”.The move follows a renewed partnership between the two companies over deploying Ericsson’s AI-based automated technology for network performance boost. Subscribe to our daily newsletter Back Mobile Mix: Buzzing for Barcelona Tags Yanitsa Boyadzhieva last_img read more

Rare B-Reed

first_imgDORAL, Fla. – There was some poetic symmetry at Trump National Doral this week, where the resort’s eponymous owner claimed Ernie Els called his revamped course “a masterpiece” (he didn’t) and maintained that most other competitors “loved it” (they didn’t). If there was ever a player who would fit right in inside one of Donald Trump’s gold-embossed boardrooms, where boasting with superlatives about oneself is less elective than prerequisite, Patrick Reed might be that player. Minutes after tapping in a bogey putt to win the WGC-Cadillac Championship by a stroke, he was asked on live television what he thought of a game that has yielded three PGA Tour wins in the past seven months, all before his 24th birthday. “I just don’t see a lot of guys that have done that, besides Tiger Woods, of course, and all of the other legends of the game,” he said. “I believe in myself – especially after how hard I’ve worked – that I’m one of the top five players in the world. To come out of a field like this and to hold on wire to wire like that, I feel like I’ve proven myself.” There’s a fine line between confidence and cockiness, between brashness and arrogance, between offering an honest opinion and articulating something better left to one’s inside voice. And it’s clear that Reed doesn’t mind walking that line, which also makes him something of a walking contradiction – a professional golfer who is comfortable telling the world how good he thinks he is. WGC-Cadillac Championship leaderboard WGC-Cadillac Championship: Articles, videos and photos Love it or hate it – and judging by initial reaction to his comments, there is no in between – you’ve gotta admit: We could use a Richard Sherman type in between the ropes. Me? I love that the kid’s got brass ones bigger than The Donald’s oversized cufflinks. I love that he isn’t afraid to wear a red shirt and black pants with Woods playing in front of him on a Sunday afternoon. I love that when asked about his chances at next month’s Masters, the first major he’ll ever play, he said, “I know that any event I tee it up at, I have a chance to win.” Maybe I’m in the minority on this one, but to those who disagree, I’ll ask this question: Who would you rather have competing for your country with the Ryder Cup on the line, a player who consistently talks about trusting the process or one who demands to run the anchor leg because he knows he’s going to win? Give me confidence in a 5-and-4 walkover every time. And just in case you were wondering, that’s exactly what Reed did back in college at Augusta State. He told the coach – yes, told; not asked – that he would go last. End result: He never lost in match play and the team claimed two consecutive national championships. When asked to list his top five, Reed named Woods, Adam Scott, Phil Mickelson, Graeme McDowell and Dustin Johnson along with himself. (Hey, maybe there’s a tie.) That wasn’t a direct swipe at Rory McIlroy or Jason Day or Henrik Stenson or anyone else. It was just him believing in himself. Before Reed gets slammed too much for speaking out of turn, it should be noted that he isn’t simply trolling his peers for the fun of it. In fact, just the opposite is true. He wants to earn their respect and cares what they think of him. “Of course I care,” he said. “It’s always nice to get congratulations from other PGA Tour players, especially a lot of the guys that are out here that are veterans, who have won a lot and all that kind of thing. I grew up watching those guys, and I was always watching them on Sunday coming down, winning events, and believing in myself and also dreaming about winning events.” He might not be the top-five player he insists he is – he’ll move to 20th on the newest world ranking – but a funny thing happened while we were waiting for Rory McIlroy to break out of his 18-month PGA Tour winless streak; while we were waiting for Jason Day to finally win that elusive major; while we were waiting for Rickie Fowler to win his second title; and while we were praising Harris English for doing that already. Under cover of obscurity and omission, Reed has emerged. He might not be the best of the bunch, but he certainly thinks he’s the best of the bunch. In the interminably mental pursuit of golf, sometimes just thinking it is good enough. Here in Donald Trump’s biggest and – believe it or not – most blustery boardroom, the champion didn’t just have the lowest score, he might have owned the most hubris, too. As the boss knows all too well, that’s always a vital commodity.last_img read more

Adaptive Golf: A new mission for wounded warriors

first_imgPARRIS ISLAND, S.C. – “They said I’d be paralyzed for the rest of my life,” smiles Edward Gizara as he pulls his driver back and launches a shot into a spring sky. Gizara is a medical miracle. He’s an inspiration and an unfiltered example of the best of us. But most of all he’s a survivor, not that any of those descriptions fit as he smothers another tee shot low and left. He may be a genuine hero, but a bad swing is still a bad swing, and Gizara pivots, annoyed more than angry, as his ball races toward a row of trees down the left side of The Legends at Parris Island’s practice tee. The entire episode lasts just seconds but is a shining example of what self-belief, support and some golf can do even with the bleakest of outlooks. In the summer of 1997 Gizara was living his dream. A career Marine who, after numerous deployments overseas, had returned to Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island to become a drill instructor. For a select few it’s a rite of passage to return to where it all began to train the next generation. As he neared the end of his training and was sent to his first platoon, Gizara was volunteered to demonstrate the proper way to climb a rope on the combat endurance course. The ensuing 26-foot fall would fracture the L3 disc in his back and change his life forever. Gizara was medevacked to the Veteran’s Administration hospital in Augusta, Ga., where he underwent nine fusion surgeries on his back and spent eight months recovering before he could even go home. When he could finally join his family he spent six months on his back with his wife having to roll him every two hours. For a staff sergeant who spent his entire life leading men, Gizara’s physical limitations understandably became a psychological black hole. Two decades removed from those dark moments, he can now admit that he attempted suicide a “few times.” “Everything was no, no, no, and I just couldn’t take it anymore,” Gizara admits. Initially, Gizara’s focus was on beating the odds and his doctor’s long-term diagnoses. He worked so hard to walk again doctors had to replace rods that had been inserted into his back multiple times because of wear and tear. “You push yourself, so sometimes you break yourself,” he says. “I never thought I wouldn’t walk again; in the Marines you never give up and you never quit, you never stop fighting.” Overcoming paralysis, however, was just the beginning. Gizara was still a Marine and still needed a mission, which he found on the golf course of all places. Although he hadn’t played golf since 1997, a friend told him about an Adaptive Golf Program at The Legends that’s designed to encourage those with disabilities and challenges to play. Cody Carter – an assistant pro at The Legends – altered Gizara’s swing to match his abilities and designed an action that wouldn’t cause any further injury. What Carter didn’t need to do was find ways to motivate Gizara. That came naturally. “It makes you appreciate what you have, the determination people have. It’s definitely inspiring for me,” Carter says. “Golf makes them feel normal, it’s a chance to do what everyone else is doing.” For Gizara, as it is for so many who enter programs like Adaptive Golf, being on the course was much more than simply a chance to play a game – it was freedom. “It saved my life and my family understands that. That’s why I’m at the course so much,” Gizara says. Gizara, who lives in Savannah, Ga., was so inspired by the program he launched a chapter in his hometown and meets with a group of about a dozen players twice a month. Just as he did when he was in the Marines, he now leads by example. As one would expect from a former drill instructor, Gizara’s bedside manner is, well, unique. During last year’s RBC Heritage Gizara set up an Adaptive Golf booth at Harbour Town Golf Links when a man in a motorized scooter drove by. “Can you play golf?” Gizara asked. “Are you stupid or what?” was the man’s response. Gizara explained what the Adaptive Golf Program offered and how they could teach the man to play with the help of new equipment like the ParaGolfer, which is an all-terrain wheelchair that raises the player into a standing position and allows a more conventional swing. “He started playing golf and now he really keeps everyone motivated,” Gizara says of the man. “I was in the wheelchair, I was in the scooter, it gave me purpose in my life which I was missing for a long time.” The benefits of programs like Adaptive Golf go well beyond exceeding the physical limitations of a particular injury. For those like Gizara who finds themselves lacking a purpose and passion it’s a way to reengage with life. Steve Giammona is a physical therapist at Beaufort (S.C.) Memorial Hospital who initially began the Adaptive Golf Program at Parris Island as a way to extend his patient’s rehabilitation, but he quickly realized it was also a way for patients to re-socialize. “Part of what all this boils down to is it creates a social network and it gives them folks they can speak to who have been through similar situations and they can speak with them about how to cope with the world,” Giammona says. “So many ways I think golf mimics life and these folks have been faced with some of the biggest adversities. As they say on Parris Island, they [Marines] overcome and adapt.” They also say you’re always a Marine, and Gizara is certainly an example of that. Golf saved his life and gave him a purpose, which in many ways can be as debilitating as losing the use of your legs or a missing limb. Back on the range at The Legends, Gizara spins back toward the practice tee, he twists and bends to re-tee his golf ball before settling back in with his driver. He pauses, looks up with a glare straight out of the drill instructor’s handbook and offers one final thought, “It’s not about your inability, it’s about your ability.”last_img read more

More Information Found in DNA: The Shape Code

first_img Tagsbinding sitebiologycentral dogmaDNAdouble helixepigeneticsevolutionGert Jan VeenstrainformationJonathan WellslysinemethylationMTF2mutationNature GeneticsPolycombPRC2proteinRadboud UniversityResearchshape codetranscription factorstrinucleotidesvertebrates,Trending Intelligent Design More Information Found in DNA: The Shape CodeEvolution News @DiscoveryCSCJune 14, 2018, 12:09 PM “A Summary of the Evidence for Intelligent Design”: The Study Guide Recommended Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share Origin of Life: Brian Miller Distills a Debate Between Dave Farina and James Tour Evolution NewsEvolution News & Science Today (EN) provides original reporting and analysis about evolution, neuroscience, bioethics, intelligent design and other science-related issues, including breaking news about scientific research. It also covers the impact of science on culture and conflicts over free speech and academic freedom in science. Finally, it fact-checks and critiques media coverage of scientific issues. Share We may have yet another code to add to Jonathan Wells’s growing list of information systems in the cell that challenge the Central Dogma. A new discovery hints at a “shape code” in the double helix.Can the shape of the DNA double helix affect its behavior? Researchers at Radboud University in the Netherlands made “a remarkable discovery” about a protein named Polycomb that binds to DNA. They noticed that it would not bind unless the helix relaxed its twist slightly at the binding site. They concluded, “The shape of the DNA helix proves to be as important as its sequence.”The mechanism of DNA binding of the well-studied protein Polycomb, which is vital for cell division and embryogenesis, has finally been deciphered. A remarkable discovery, as it proves that the shape of DNA is at least as important for where the protein binds in the DNA as the DNA sequence. The role of the shape of DNA had not been demonstrated so clearly. Researchers at Radboud University will publish their findings on May 28th in the scientific journal Nature Genetics. [Emphasis added.]A 13-second animation shows how this works. The docking protein MTF2, which ferries Polycomb, needs the DNA to un-twist in order to bind to the site, where Polycomb will switch off specific genes. “MTF2 only recognises the binding spot on the DNA if the helix is in a relatively unwound state,” the caption says.The scientists say this is a new way to look at DNA. What they found may be a general feature of how it functions — not just by sequence, but by shape. Besides the classical interpretation of the code (the ‘sequence of letters’) in DNA defining its function, it has been known for several years that the helix shape of DNA may also play a role. “We are currently able to read what is written in the human genome, but understanding the mechanisms is not an easy task,” says Gert Jan Veenstra, Professor of Molecular Developmental Biology, one of the researchers involved in this study. “The concept that helix shape is also involved in how DNA functions, is an interesting new way of perceiving DNA. It could lead to understanding its functioning in general and of the way in which proteins can bind to DNA in certain places.”The impact of shape on protein function is well known, but the role of DNA shape is relatively less understood. Give It a TwistWhile not entirely new, the concept of a shape code has been more clearly demonstrated in this instance than ever before. This is one of several discoveries about Polycomb mentioned in the paper in Nature Genetics. One subsection in the paper states, “DNA sequence and helical shape dictate MTF2 binding.” At least in this instance, the sequence and the shape play complementary roles. This means that the amount of twist in the double helix is an integral part of the information in DNA.How did they determine that the shape was a critical factor for the binding site in DNA? They identified binding sites and their flanking regions, then they created “bait” motifs containing mutations in those regions. To rule out effects due to the sequence surrounding the motif or to the mutation itself, we repeated the experiment using baits with different flanking sequences and different point mutations in the motif…. Notably, PRC2 recruitment was strongly reduced by DNA methylation….Additional tests narrowed down the shape of the helix as the critical factor where MTF2 would bind. Not the Sequence but the ShapeThe flanking regions controlled the tightness of the helical twist at those points. It wasn’t the sequence; it was the shape.Specifically, the central unmethylated CpG dinucleotide was critical but not sufficient for binding, as shown by the effect of flanking mutations that also affect the helical structure of the bait. Moreover, the mutations that most severely reduced MTF2 binding cause helical shape perturbations that lie outside the average shape profile of positive-scoring k-mers, while the least perturbing one almost perfectly mirrored the shape of the wild-type bait (Fig. 5b), lending further support to a role of DNA helical shape in MTF2 binding to DNA.To clinch their detective work, they made some predictions and tested them.To further investigate the role of DNA shape in determining MTF2 binding sites, we tested whether we could predict MTF2 bound regions using only shape information. We predicted the DNA shape of all the GCG trinucleotides in MTF2 peak summits and used machine learning to classify them against nucleotide-composition-matched controls…. The algorithm was able to identify differences between MTF2-bound vs. unbound unmethylated islands on the basis of helical shape alone….Taken together, these analyses document the sequence and DNA helical shape properties of MTF2 binding and their role in PRC2 recruitment….How specific is the shape information? The “bait” sequences demonstrated a “highly specific” binding of the components needed for Polycomb function. In Figure 6 of the open-access paper, the differences between “shape qualifying” and “non-qualifying” amounts of helical twist appear slight, as if a threshold of untwist is necessary to get MTF2 to bind. Flanking regions containing CGC sequences were required to untwist the helix; “Among top-scoring motifs, we identified TGCGCAAA as the most strongly enriched motif in both vertebrate species,” they say. So here, sections of DNA control the twist but not the RNA transcripts, with methylation of the bases also implicated in the effects. These are epigenetic sources of information, not genetic (sequence-based) codes. The authors used several tests to rule out sequence information as the cause of binding success or failure. They also noted that “shape features might provide directionality to the binding site,” suggesting an additional functional role for the amount of twist. The authors did not use the term “shape code” as we do here, but what else would you call specific flanking sequences and methylation patterns that change the twist or untwist, controlling the binding of transcription factors?What a SurpriseRecognition of this new source of epigenetic information suggests a “new way of practicing biology,” they say.The discovery of the mechanisms involved of DNA binding by Polycomb is one of the first concrete examples in which the shape of DNA plays a more important role for the protein’s functioning than the code contained in the DNA. It turns out that the protein can only bind to the DNA helix if the latter is relatively unwound. Veenstra: “Because the DNA-binding protein does not bind to a specific sequence in the DNA, it was difficult to find the working mechanism of the protein using regular research methods.” This mechanism had been actively sought by many people in the field for the past twenty years.What a surprise, they don’t have much to say about evolution. The only mention in the paper concerned pressure against it. The caption in Figure 2 says:The lysine rich region (K-rich) of MTF2 is well conserved among vertebrates compared to the other PCL proteins in mouse (a), suggesting an evolutionary pressure against mutation in this area. What we appear to be observing in this case is another layer of information riding on top of the sequence, governing how the genetic sequences are regulated epigenetically. A design-oriented approach may yet uncover additional instances where the shape of the double helix governs how it is read.Image source: Radboud University, via YouTube (screen shot). Requesting a (Partial) Retraction from Darrel Falk and BioLogos Jane Goodall Meets the God Hypothesis Congratulations to Science Magazine for an Honest Portrayal of Darwin’s Descent of Man Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share A Physician Describes How Behe Changed His MindLife’s Origin — A “Mystery” Made AccessibleCodes Are Not Products of PhysicsIxnay on the Ambriancay PlosionexhayDesign Triangulation: My Thanksgiving Gift to Alllast_img read more

News / Europe seems to be ignoring EC ‘green lanes for road freight’ policy, says IRU

first_img By Gavin van Marle 27/03/2020 The Hungarian government today introduced new medical testing requirements for truck drivers entering the country.According Hungarian road freight association MKFE, the country’s chief medical officer today ruled that all truck drivers at its borders will have to undergo a medical check to determine if they are showing Covid-19 symptoms.Hungarian drivers not showing the symptoms and whose destination is in the country, will have to go into a 14-day quarantine once the delivery is completed.Foreign drivers delivering to Hungarian consignees must leave the country within 24 hours of completing the shipment and transit trucks must take the shortest route through. Hungarian drivers who show symptoms “will be housed in a designated quarantine facility”, while foreign drivers showing symptoms will simply be refused entry to the country.Truck queues at Hungary’s borders, which had virtually vanished yesterday afternoon, reappeared today.According to real-time shipment visibility platform Sixfold, which has built a dynamic border waiting time map of the continent, an 18km queue has built up at the Austria-Hungary border and a 19km tailback at the largest crossing between Hungary and Romania.The new rules appear to be in contravention of Europe’s green lanes policy and gives credence to a claim yesterday from the International Road Transport Union (IRU) that its call for “globally coordinated regulations for the industry” had “unfortunately largely [gone] unanswered”.Secretary general Umberto de Pretto said: “We are extremely concerned about the lack of coordination and individual approaches put in place by governments worldwide. The global community can only deal with this pandemic if it acts together.”This, he said, included harmonising safety standards and conditions for drivers, and the IRU called for 14-day quarantines introduced by some countries to be abandoned.“These measures need to be replaced with access to free testing and hygiene tools to make sure drivers are able to continue working safely to keep delivering goods in time,” the IRU said.It also reiterated its call for borders to be kept open to road freight and added that governments needed to start offering financial aid to the thousands of trucking firms that could be forced into bankruptcy.“Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) – often family run – are the backbone of road transport across the globe, moving goods and people and representing up to 90% of the industry,” said the union.“These SMEs must receive financial aid in the first place, to avoid imminent bankruptcies and lasting economic impacts on supply and mobility chains.“Many SMEs are likely to go bankrupt by the time the pandemic ends unless they receive immediate financial support without excessive bureaucracy. Passenger transport companies are closing down, and more and more goods transport companies will not survive the longer the pandemic continues,” it said.center_img ID 42101382 © Natalia Bratslavsky | Dreamstime.comlast_img read more

Juvenile Justice Commissioner Speaks After Sex Abuse Allegation Investigation

first_img??:?? | Play story Add to My ListIn My List For Whom The Bell Rings Georgia’s Juvenile Justice Commissioner and other top Department of Juvenile Justice officials spoke out for the first time Thursday since the completion of an internal investigation.The investigation found a backlog of 700 open cases, 141 of which had some type of sex abuse or harassment allegations. Three of those cases have been substantiated and another dozen are under investigation.The investigation followed a federal survey where Georgia had one of the highest percentages of juveniles self-reporting they were sexually victimized in state detention facilities.??:??The Department of Juvenile Justice’s monthly board meeting started with Assistant Commissioner Mark Sexton fielding questions from board members like Dick Yarbrough.“What have we learned out of all this?”Sexton says it learned department investigators and the entire agency needs consistent guidance. He says the department has had significant leadership changes in the past 36-months, including Commissioner Avery Niles who is the department’s fifth commissioner in four years, an assistant commissioner and just this month a new director of investigations.“I believe we’re going to go a long way with some standardized and stabilized leadership.”Sexton also says juvenile justice officials are implementing a new review process, investigators are working to complete a number of the backlogged cases and will soon receive training from the Georgia Bureau of Investigation.   Board members also heard from Commissioner Avery Niles.“We’ve got things to do. We’ve got an issue that has come up and we’re going to do the right thing and move forward as an agency.”After the meeting, Niles spoke briefly with the media. This was his response when asked how the department can ensure juveniles in state facilities are safe from sex abuse or harassment.“We can only hope and put measures in place to prevent those type incidents from happening and wherever we investigate, wherever the chips fall that’s where they lie as it relates to the betterment of the agency.” Niles says the department has terminated the three employees involved in the cases that have been substantiated. He also gave more details about the backlog in cases. Niles says the department knew about the backlog for months but did know specifics about the individual cases until it recently investigated the matter. Share Related Stories Legal Advocate Discusses Medical Abuse At Shut Down Georgia ICE Facility ‘It’s Fractured’: Georgia Lt. Gov. Geoff Duncan On Healing Republican Partylast_img read more